IELTS Writing Task 2: Forecast and practice exercises: Sustainable Future

IELTS Writing Forecast Task Question:

The key to solving environmental problems is simple: present generations must have a less comfortable life for the sake of future generations. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (Environment)

View a list of IELTS Writing Forecast questions for June 2023 here.

ielts writing forecast

Topic Vocabulary Practice Exercises

Exercise 1: Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence. One word will be used twice.

A. sustainable

B. sacrifice

C. mitigate

D. conservation

E. implications

F. depletion

G. implementation

H. renewable

I. contamination

J. repercussions

1. _______________ energy sources like solar and wind power are crucial for reducing our dependence on fossil fuels.

2. Many people are not willing to _______________ their own comfort for the benefit of future generations.

3. Efforts to _______________ climate change require the cooperation of all nations.

4. The _______________ of natural resources is a major concern in many parts of the world.

5. The _______________ of deforestation on wildlife habitats cannot be ignored.

6. The _______________ of water resources is a pressing issue in arid regions.

7. The successful _______________ of environmental policies requires strong leadership and public support.

8. The use of _______________ materials, such as recycled paper, can help reduce waste.

9. Industrial activities have led to the _______________ of rivers and lakes.

10. The _______________ of unsustainable practices can have far-reaching _______________.


  1. renewable
  2. sacrifice
  3. mitigate
  4. conservation
  5. implications
  6. depletion
  7. implementation
  8. sustainable
  9. contamination
  10. implementation / J. repercussions

Exercise 2: Use the base word provided in brackets to form a word that fits correctly into each sentence.

  1. Environmental _______________ (PROTECT)
  2. _______________ (REQUIRE) of sustainable practices is essential for preserving our planet.
  3. The _______________ (CONTAMINATE) of air and water is a serious concern.
  4. Climate change poses significant _______________ (CHALLENGE) to our society.
  5. The _______________ (RESPONSIBLE) of individuals is crucial in solving environmental problems.
  6. It is important to _______________ (BALANCE) economic growth with environmental conservation.
  7. The government should _______________ (PROMOTE) the use of renewable energy sources.
  8. _______________ (EDUCATE) programs can raise awareness about environmental issues.
  9. The _______________ (IMPLEMENT) of stricter environmental regulations is necessary.
  10. We need to find _______________ (ALTERNATE) solutions to reduce carbon emissions.


  1. Protection
  2. Requirement
  3. Contamination
  4. Challenges
  5. Responsibility
  6. Balance
  7. Promote
  8. Educational
  9. Implementation
  10. Alternative

Reasoning Practice Exercises

Exercise 1: Match the reasons or explanations with the corresponding opinion supporting or opposing the idea that present generations must have a less comfortable life for the sake of future generations.


  1. I completely agree with the idea that present generations should have a less comfortable life for the sake of future generations.
  2. I partially agree with the idea that present generations should have a less comfortable life for the sake of future generations.
  3. I completely disagree with the idea that present generations should have a less comfortable life for the sake of future generations.


a. By adopting a less comfortable lifestyle, present generations can reduce their carbon footprint and minimize the impact on the environment.

b. Sacrificing comfort today can ensure the availability of resources for future generations and prevent depletion of natural resources.

c. A less comfortable life can encourage innovation and the development of sustainable practices that benefit both present and future generations.

d. It is unfair to expect present generations to suffer for the sake of the future. We should focus on finding alternative solutions that do not compromise comfort.

e. A less comfortable life can lead to greater appreciation for the environment and motivate present generations to take responsibility for their actions.


1 – b

2 – a

3 – d

Exercise 2: Match the reasons (A, B, C) with their corresponding results (1, 2, 3).  


A. Limited natural resources

B. Overconsumption and waste

C. Environmental degradation


  1. Reduced pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
  2. Sustainable use of resources
  3. Preservation of the environment for future generations


A-3, B-1, C-2

Exercise 3: Read the statement and complete the sentence by choosing the most appropriate reason from the given options.

Statement 1: “Limiting our comfort for the benefit of future generations is necessary because ________________.”


A. Overconsumption and waste are depleting resources rapidly.

B. Present generations are not responsible for environmental problems.

C. Environmental degradation is irreversible.

D. Comfortable lifestyles hinder technological progress.

Statement 2: “Adopting a less comfortable life for present generations can result in ________________.”


  1. Increased health and well-being for future generations.
  2. Long-term preservation of the environment.
  3. Technological advancements in sustainable practices.
  4. A decrease in global economic growth.


1-A. Overconsumption and waste are depleting resources rapidly.

2-B. Long-term preservation of the environment.

Exercise 4: Match the examples (A, B, C) with their corresponding statistics or factual information (1, 2, 3).


A. Reduction in carbon emissions through lifestyle changes

B. Conservation of water resources through reduced consumption

C. Preservation of natural habitats through sustainable land use

Statistics/Factual Information:

  1. According to a recent study, adopting eco-friendly lifestyles can reduce carbon emissions by up to 30%.
  2. Research indicates that implementing water conservation measures can lead to a 20% decrease in water consumption within households.
  3. Conservation efforts, such as sustainable land use practices, have successfully preserved over 15% of endangered natural habitats worldwide.


A-1, B-2, C-3

Exercise 5: Choose a specific example with a statistic or factual information to support the given argument.


A. Having a less comfortable life can result in a reduction in carbon emissions.

B. Adopting a less comfortable life can contribute to the preservation of natural habitats.

C. Having a less comfortable life can contribute to the conservation of water resources.


  1. The implementation of efficient irrigation systems and responsible water usage practices in Australian agriculture resulted in a 40% decrease in water consumption, conserving resources, minimizing strain on freshwater ecosystems, and ensuring water availability for the future.
  2. In Costa Rica, sustainable forestry management and protected areas have conserved over 25% of the country’s land, safeguarding diverse ecosystems and protecting endangered species, as confirmed by the National System of Conservation Areas’ report. Critical habitats like tropical rainforests and coral reefs have been successfully preserved.
  3. Choosing eco-friendly transportation options, such as cycling or public transport, significantly contributes to reducing carbon emissions. Replacing just 10% of private car trips with cycling or public transport in urban areas can lead to a 12% decrease in carbon emissions, according to a study by the Environmental Protection Agency.


A-3, B-2, C-1

Detailed Outline 1: for IELTS Writing Task 2: Agree


  • Introduce topic: environmental problems and sacrificing present comfort for future generations.
  • Writer’s opinion: disagreeing with this perspective.

Body 1

Topic sentence: Sacrificing present comfort has limited effectiveness.

  • Reason: Environmental issues are complex, requiring comprehensive solutions.
  • Result: Imposing discomfort may lead to resentment, hindering collective action.
  • Explanation: Comfortable living enhances well-being and focus on environmental initiatives.
  • Example: Countries with high living standards invest more in renewable energy.
  • Counterargument: Some argue comfort sacrifices reduce consumption.
  • Rebuttal: Sustainable practices and technology can reduce consumption without major discomfort.
  • Comparison: Environmental progress comes from technology, innovation, and policy changes.

Body 2

Topic sentence: More effective strategies exist without sacrificing present comfort.

  • Explanation: Economic growth provides resources for sustainable practices.
  • Example: Developed countries invest in clean technologies and effective environmental policies.
  • Benefit: Technological advancements address comfort and the environment.
  • Example: Advancements in renewable energy enable comfortable living without harming the environment.
  • Counterargument: Sacrificing comfort raises awareness and mobilizes action.
  • Drawback: Imposing discomfort can result in societal backlash.
  • Rebuttal: Education, advocacy, and policy changes can raise awareness without major comfort sacrifices.


  • Restate writer’s opinion against significant comfort sacrifices for environmental solutions.
  • Summarize key points: limited effectiveness of sacrifices and alternative approaches.

Model Essay 1

Environmental problems pose significant challenges for present and future generations. While some argue that sacrificing present comfort is essential to address these issues, this essay disagrees with that perspective. Instead, it will explore the limited effectiveness of sacrificing comfort and propose alternative approaches to solving environmental problems.

Sacrificing present comfort has limited effectiveness in tackling complex and multifaceted environmental issues. Imposing discomfort on individuals or societies may breed resentment and hinder collective action. When people make sacrifices without seeing tangible results, it dampens enthusiasm for environmental initiatives. Comfortable living conditions enhance well-being and enable a focus on supporting environmental efforts. Higher living standards are associated with increased investment in renewable energy and sustainability, demonstrating progress without compromising comfort. While reducing consumption is crucial, it can be achieved through sustainable practices and technology, minimizing discomfort. Environmental progress primarily depends on technological innovation, policy changes, and widespread adoption of sustainable practices, rather than solely on individual sacrifices.


There are more effective strategies available to address environmental problems while ensuring present comfort. Economic growth is crucial for providing resources to implement sustainable practices. Developed countries with higher living standards possess the financial capacity to invest in clean technologies and effective environmental policies. These investments contribute to environmental preservation while promoting economic growth and job creation. Technological advancements in renewable energy allow for comfortable living without compromising the environment. Energy-efficient appliances, smart homes, and renewable energy sources enable individuals to maintain comfort while reducing their ecological footprint. While some argue that sacrificing comfort raises awareness and mobilizes action, it is not the sole means to achieve this goal. Education, advocacy, and policy changes can effectively raise awareness without imposing significant discomfort. By informing people about environmental conservation and the benefits of sustainable practices, we can foster responsibility and inspire collective action. Encouraging behavioral changes through incentives and accessible alternatives can lead to widespread adoption of environmentally friendly practices without sacrificing comfort.

In conclusion, I disagree with the notion that significant sacrifices in comfort are necessary to address environmental issues. Relying solely on discomfort as a strategy proves ineffective, fostering resentment and impeding collective action. Instead, alternative strategies exist that reconcile comfortable living with effective environmental solutions.

362 words

Detailed Outline 2: for IELTS Writing Task 2: Disagree


  • Introduce environmental problems and the need for solutions.
  • Writer’s opinion: Present generations should sacrifice comfort for future generations.

Body 1

Topic sentence: Sacrificing comfort is essential for addressing environmental problems.

  • Reason: Overconsumption of resources and excessive energy usage contribute to environmental degradation.
  • Result: Reducing comfort levels decreases resource consumption and energy use.
    • Example: Societies with lower comfort levels often exhibit a smaller ecological footprint.
  • Reason: Less comfortable lifestyles encourage innovation and eco-friendly technologies.
  • Example: Sweden’s sustainable living policies: taxing carbon emissions and encouraging energy-efficient practices.
  • Counterargument: Sacrificing comfort is unnecessary or ineffective.
  • Rebuttal: Technological advancements alone are insufficient; sacrificing comfort is crucial for meaningful change.

Body 2

Topic sentence: Education and collective responsibility are integral for a less comfortable life for the environment.

  • Explanation: Educating the present generation creates awareness and responsibility for sustainable practices.
  • Result: behavioral changes and a collective effort to prioritize the environment.
  • Example: Environmental education programs instill sustainable habits and empower informed choices.
  • Counter-argument: sacrificing comfort disproportionately affects lower-income individuals and perpetuates social inequality.
  • Rebuttal: Individual actions combined with systemic changes, government policies to ensure sustainable practices,


  • Recap importance of sacrificing comfort for the environment.
  • Reinforce writer’s opinion for a sustainable future.

Model Essay 2

In today’s world, there is an ongoing debate about whether present generations should lead less comfortable lives to secure the well-being of future generations. Personally, I firmly believe that sacrificing comfort is crucial for ensuring a sustainable future.

To begin with, sacrificing comfort is crucial in tackling environmental issues. Overconsumption and wasteful energy use contribute to degradation. By reducing comfort levels, we can significantly decrease resource consumption and energy usage. Societies prioritizing comfort often have a larger ecological footprint, emphasizing the need for environmental conservation. Embracing a less comfortable lifestyle fosters innovation and eco-friendly technologies, challenging the notion that comfort equals progress. Despite initial adjustments, the long-term benefits outweigh temporary discomfort. Sweden’s sustainable living policies, like carbon emissions taxation and energy-efficient practices, demonstrate how sacrificing comfort leads to tangible environmental improvements. Some argue against sacrificing comfort, but historical evidence shows that incremental changes without addressing underlying behaviors are inadequate. To effect meaningful change, a comprehensive approach involving sacrificing comfort is required to address environmental challenges effectively.


Furthermore, education and collective responsibility play pivotal roles in embracing a less comfortable life for the sake of the environment. They raise awareness, encourage behavioral changes, and prioritize environmental concerns over personal comfort. Environmental education programs empower individuals to make informed choices, while societies can mitigate degradation. While individual actions are crucial, their effectiveness is enhanced when supported by systemic changes and government policies that promote sustainability. For instance, the global Eco-Schools program empowers students to initiate sustainable projects, resulting in reduced waste, increased recycling, and the adoption of eco-friendly practices. Critics stress the need for systemic changes to address environmental problems, yet government policies bolster individual efforts and create an environment conducive to sustainable living. By combining individual responsibility with systemic changes, we can make a substantial impact on the environment.

In conclusion, sacrificing comfort is paramount in ensuring a sustainable future. By reducing comfort levels, we directly address the issues of overconsumption and excessive energy usage. Moreover, education and collective responsibility play crucial roles in prioritizing environmental concerns. Collectively, these efforts pave the way for a sustainable and environmentally conscious future.

349 words

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